CUSTOMERS AS ONLINE BRAND AMBASSADORS: Motivation for the Creation of UGC and Benefits for the Fashion Label ‘Free People’

September 29, 2014

  Written by Susanne Krebs

INTRODUCTION

Sociologists and economists alike talk about the new, empowered customer. This customer’s stage is the marketplace, his props are Social Media applications and his agenda is to ‘spread the word’ via user-generated content (UGC). By the time the curtain is drawn, it remains unsure whether the customer’s actions will result in comedic or tragic consequences for companies. But if marketers act smart and quick, they can turn ordinary customers into virtual stars; stars that act as online brand ambassadors and endorse for their benefactors.

This paper aims to highlight the most important steps, motivations and implications of the new customer’s journey and presents a successful example of how a fashion/retail company mastered the concept of recruiting customers as online brand ambassadors via an internally implemented UGC-platform.

 

BACKGROUND

Customers’ Empowerment

Sharing personal content online has become omnipresent in contemporary society. Individuals share information about their daily life, upload pictures of their latest travels and review their latest purchases. This phenomenon is summarized as UGC and defines “any material created and uploaded to the Internet by amateur contributors” (Akar & Topçu, 2011).

With the emergence of Web 2.0 and its multiple Social Media applications (i.a. YouTube, Facebook, Wikipedia, Flickr or personal blogs), UGC is accessible for society at large (Daugherty, Eastin & Bright, 2008). A new marketplace emerged (Akar & Topçu, 2011) and within new challenges: company-driven CRM increasingly turns into customer-driven CMR (“customer managed relations”) who demand platforms to proactively interact with companies (Wind, 2008). Within a company’s marketing context, the power shifted from market-driving media experiences to market-driven media ‘reactions’ (Daugherty, Eastin & Bright, 2008).

On the other hand, every empowered customer represents a valuable asset for the company (Liu-Thompkins & Rogerson (2012). As content creator, influencer and communicator he possesses the latent potential of becoming an online brand ambassador. Naturally, the feasibility of this concept differs among industries. It is more likely to incite a customer to endorse for a fashion label than, for example, for a petrol brand. Assessing the industry’s reputation (and for that matter also the company’s reputation) is a key to success. Most importantly however, is the assessment of the target customer and his motifs in order to implement a digital marketing strategy that eventually generates profit from UGC and possibly recruits customers as online brand ambassadors (Hoffman & Fodor, 2010).

 

Customers’ Motivation

Sharing online content is motivated by personal and social functions. Personal incentives include the expression and relation of self-concepts. Through UGC, customers can voice their individual opinions and - by receiving acknowledgment for these opinions - increase their self-esteem. This alludes to the second incentive: social belonging. By sharing UGC, customers become part of an online community and satisfy the human need of ‘fitting in’ and nourishing relationships (Daugherty, Eastin & Bright, 2008).

Additionally, a majority of individuals shares content online because they want to “get the word out about causes or brands” (The New York Times, 2011). The creation of brand-related UGC has a particular motivation. Since their emergence, brands are seen as “symbolic resources for the construction of identity” (Elliot & Wattanasuwan, 1998). Brands utter meanings (personal and/or societal) that serve as touch points of identification and inspiration for individuals to create stories around ‘the self’. A collective of brand devotees is referred to as ‘brand community’ (Muniz & O’Guinn, 2001). A typical characteristic of ‘brand communities’ is that they are non-geographically bound. In this context, Web 2.0 acts as a central mean of communication. Community-embedded creators of brand-related UGC are seen as particularly important, trustworthy and valuable customers (Muniz & Schau, 2011) and therefore constitute ideal online brand ambassadors.

 

Implications for Marketers

Contemporary marketing is multidirectional, participatory and user-generated (Akar & Topçu, 2011). An elementary step is to ensure that the customer has access to a suitable platform to communicate with the company and with fellow customers and to encourage active participation and co-creation of brand meaning within that platform (Singh & Sonnenburg, 2012).

Marketers have the possibility to resort to third-party UGC-platforms (common Social Media applications like Facebook or Twitter) or to create internal platforms.

Internal UGC-platforms allow more specific, brand-related customization and thus give the opportunity to create more personalized, trustworthy identities and relationships (Christodoulides, 2009). Furthermore, internal UGC-platforms allow for more company power because they can apply their ‘own set of rules’ to control the brand meaning which is a critical necessity within UGC (Muniz & Schau, 2011).

On the other hand, the implementation of an internal UGC-platform is connected to a financial investment (instead of resorting to mostly free third-party applications). To redeem this investment, it is important to generate enough traffic to trigger beneficial participation. Appealing incentives that motivate the customer to actually create brand-related content and share it with others (even outside communal boundaries) are crucial in this context (Burmann, 2010).

It is important to integrate the concept of online brand ambassadors into the company’s existing marketing mix (Daugherty, Eastin & Bright, 2008). The number one rule to regard is consistency in storytelling (Singh & Sonnenburg, 2012). Ideally, UGC is one of multiple marketing touch points. Despite the fact that online brand ambassadors do participate in creating the story, they are still remain customers and therefore good story listeners (Singh & Sonnenburg, 2012). Creating own content must not become a redundancy once a company implements a UGC-platform.

 

Best Practice example: The ‘Free people’ community board 

About ‘Free People’

‘Free People’ (FP) is a subsidiary label of the American fashion company ‘Urban Outfitters’. It was launched in 1984 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Since the label’s relaunch in 2001, FP promotes femininity, courage and spirit; values that are not only resembled in the bohemian fashion designs but also in the label’s culture and marketing activities (Free People I, 2014).

FP pursues an extensive digital marketing strategy that took off with the official retail website launch in 2004. Social Media appearances on common external channels such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, etc. are as much part of the strategy as internal digital marketing efforts. The label launched a blog in 2006 and released an internet short film in 2012 (Free People I, 2014). All marketing initiatives follow the same storytelling motif that circles around the ‘twenty-something Free People girl’. Through this, FP wants to emerge from a mere fashion brand to a lifestyle brand (Noricks, 2013).

 

The Community Board: A Perfect Marketing-Fit

Simply creating digital content for the customers is not enough for the FP marketers. They want to mobilize their most passionate customer base to create their own brand content and to become valuable assets by turning them into online brand ambassadors (Noricks, 2013).

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   Fig. 1: “FP Me logo”

Fig. 1: “FP Me logo”

Fig. 1: FP Me Logo

In this context, FP launched an integrated, online community board in February 2013 with the name ‘Free People Me’ (FPMe) (Sherman, 2013). To actively create content, the FP customer is required to create an account. Thereafter, he (or in this case: she) is entitled to create UGC – upload pictures of outfits featuring FP designs as well as to like or comment on other user’s pictures (Free People II, 2014). 

Kathryn O’Connor, FP’s Senior Marketing Manager, motivates the integration of the community board by highlighting the importance of including the customer in the label’s marketing activities: “Our customers are a huge source of inspiration and we wanted to give them a space to show their style and interact with each other” (Noricks, 2013).

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   Fig. 2: “FP Me Community Board Layout  "

Fig. 2: “FP Me Community Board Layout"

ig. 2: FP Me Community Board Layout

 Investing in an internal UGC-platform always implies a certain risk. Prior to the launch, FP was confident it could generate sufficient traffic to their internal domain because previous customer analyses indicated that the typical FP customer is engaged and willing to share label-related content on the Internet (Noricks, 2013). David Hayne, FP’s Managing Director points out that “[their] customer today is sharing her life with friends on social media. [They] believe she’ll also be excited to do so with fans of a brand she cares about” (PR Web I, 2013). This belief fostered the creation of an online community that generates label-related UGC and enables customers to become trustworthy online brand ambassadors.

De facto, the concept proves to be successful. Within one year of the community board launch, FPMe generated over 25.000 different customer pictures (Free People II, 2014).

In November 2013, FP expanded their FPMe concept. Since then, users are able to upload ‘inspirational’ pictures that don’t necessarily feature FP designs but any motifs customers like to share with the label and fellow customers (PR Web II, 2013); a further step to establish the label as a lifestyle brand, rather than a mere fashion brand.

 

Hand in Hand: Mutual Benefits for Label and Customers

However, simply providing FP’s customers the technical opportunity to create UGC is not enough to recruit them as online brand ambassadors. There are attendant factors that account for the concept’s success.

Reaching out to bloggers or other popular influencers in order to raise brand awareness is a common, contemporary marketing strategy in the digital fashion and retail industry. FP takes the role as one of fashion industry’s few pioneers and turns ‘ordinary’ customers into stars and consequently into online brand ambassadors. This is a smart approach, especially considering the rise of criticism against bloggers that endorse for products in exchange of sponsorships (Hunter, 2013).

FP’s incentives for regular and qualitative UGC creation are e.g. participating in FP fashion shows, hosting shopping parties in FP stores, becoming FPMe ‘Trendsetter of the Year’ or having customer generated pictures featured on the online web shop (Sherman, 2013). These incentives trigger customer’s personal motivation factors such as the impression or self-esteem management. Being on a ‘first name basis’ with FP is an added bonus because it indicates appreciation and belonging.

“The good news for Free People is that for every customer it makes into a star, there are hundreds FP Me users waiting for their moment” (Sherman, 2013). Whenever FP re-shares customer’s UGC, the creator experiences a boost in traffic and popularity. Some of FP’s most popular online brand ambassadors even decided to create own style blogs due to their sudden communal fame and thereby spread the FP lifestyle even beyond the community’s boundaries (Sherman, 2013). Senior Marketing Manager O’Connor is convinced that “if [the label is] drawing girls into the Free People lifestyle, chances are that they’ll also be attracted to the clothes” (Noricks, 2013). Eventually, the establishment of online brand ambassadors turns into measurable ROI.

 

CONCLUSION

Turning customers into online brand ambassadors is a recent, demanding and risky marketing phenomenon. However, if a company proves to be successful, its online brand ambassadors are prone to be highly beneficial. They are ordinary individuals that fellow customers can relate to and therefore perceive as trustworthy.

The journey toward a self-sustaining online brand ambassador base is challenging. Creating a platform that enables UGC is the first step. Ideally, a company assembles multiple UGC touch points, external and internal. Internal UGC-platforms demand higher investment and maintenance but are crucial for the process of creating transparency, trust and a consistent storytelling arch. There, customers can resort to an online community that satisfies their social and personal needs and motivates them to actively create and share brand-related content.

Incentives add to this motivation and have the chance to ‘spread the word’ beyond communal boundaries to increase awareness and traffic.

Recruiting customers as online brand ambassadors has great potential among fashion retailers. Creating UGC related to clothing products is normally possible without inordinate effort or expenditure. However, the ‘look and feel’ of the label has to appeal to an online affine customer base. Furthermore, fellow customers have to accept the idea of ordinary individuals endorsing for the label and influencing their lifestyle. FP complies with these requirements. The label’s target customer embraces the online brand ambassador concept which turns it into a promising online marketing tool.

REFERENCE LIST

Literature:

Akar E., Topçu, B. (2011): An Examination of the Factors Influencing Consumers’ Attitude toward Social Media Marketing, Journal of Internet Commerce, 10 (1), 35-67

Burmann C. (2010): A Call for ‘User-Generated-Branding’, Journal of Brand Management, 18, 1-4

Christodoulides G. (2009): Branding in the Post-Internet Era, Marketing Theory, 9(1), 141-144

Elliot R., Wattanasuwan K. (1998): Brands as Symbolic Resources for the Construction of Identity, International Journal of Advertising, 17, 131-144

Daugherty T., Eastin M. S., Bright L. (2008): Exploring Consumer Motivations for Creating User-Generated Content, Journal of Interactive Advertising, 8(2), 16-25

Hoffman D. L., Fodor M. (2010): Can You Measure the ROI of Your Social Media Marketing?, MIT Sloan Management Review, 52(1)

Liu-Thompkins Y., Rogerson M. (2012): Rising to Stardom: An Empirical Investigation of the Diffusion of User-Generated Content, Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26, 71-82

Muniz A. M., O’Guinn T. C. (2001): Brand Community, Journal of Consumer Research, 27, 412-430

Muniz A. M., Schau H. J. (2011): How to Inspire Value-laden Collaborative Consumer-Generated Content, Business Horizons, 54, 209-217

Singh s., Sonnenburg s. (2012): Brand Performances in Social Media, Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26, 189-197

Wind Y. J. (2008): A Plan to Invent the Marketing We Need Today, MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(4)

 

Internet:

Free People I (2014): Our Story, available online: http://www.freepeople.com/our-story/       [accessed: 2014-02-07]

Free People II (2014): FP Me, available online: http://www.freepeople.com/fpme/                  [accessed: 2014-02-07]

Hunter S. (2013): Point of View: Have style bloggers sold out to the lure of big fashion brands?, available online: http://runninginheels.co.uk/articles/point-view-bored-fashion-blogs/ [accessed: 2014-02-11]

 Noricks, C. (2013): How Free People succeeds with branded and customer-generated content, available online: http://www.prcouture.com/2013/04/25/how-free-people-is-succeeding-with-branded-content/ [accessed: 2014-02-10]

PR Web I (2013): Introducing ‘FP Me’: Free People’s Style Community, available online: http://www.prweb.com/releases/2013/2/prweb10429732.html [accessed: 2014-02-13]

PR Web II (2013): Free People introduces next phase of UGC to its website: ‘Inspiration Pics’, available online: http://www.prweb.com/releases/2013/11/prweb11329517.html     [accessed: 2014-02-08]

Sherman, L. (2013): Retailers look to their best customers, not bloggers, as the new influencers, available online: http://fashionista.com/2013/12/customers-new-retail-influencers/  [accessed: 2014-02-10]

The New York Times (2011): The Psychology of Sharing, available online: http://nytmarketing.whsites.net/mediakit/pos/POS_PUBLIC0819.php                            [accessed: 2014-02-12]

 

Visuals:

Fig. 1: http://www.freepeople.com/resources/_shared/images/fpme/fpme-logo.png           [accessed: 2014-02-07]

Fig. 2: based on http://www.freepeople.com/fpme/ [accessed: 2014-02-07]

CRM in the era of web 2.0: Consumer empowerment through E-WOM and CGC

September 4, 2014

 Written by Masters Student at Lund University

Abstract

Consumers are no longer passive receivers of mass-communicated messages. The web 2.0 is the host for many-to-many interactions and co-creation of content, which has empowered the consumers and reduced the control of the marketer. The social media challenge the traditional customer relationship management (CRM) approach, which this paper aims to uncover by looking into the phenomenon of ‘’social CRM’’. Furthermore, the empowerment of consumers is considered in relation to electronic word-of-mouth and collaborative consumer generated content.

Key words: Web 2.0, Electronic word-of-mouth (E-WOM), Consumer generated content (CGC), Social media, Relationship management (CRM), Consumer empowerment

 

Introduction

The interactive web 2.0 has provided a digital media platform, which enable consumers to co-create and interact with the company, the media and each other (Hanna, Rohm & Crittenden 2011). The internet has become a host for many-to-many communications and has thereby empowered the consumers (Chrisodoulides 2009). Deighton & Kornfeld (2009) supports this argument by stating that the internet has empowered the consumers and reduced the control of the marketer. According to Chrisodoulides (2009) the empowerment of consumers engaging in the social media is so strong that it is possible to interfere with the brand’s value.

The empowerment of consumers through the interactive web 2.0 seems to have changed the relationship between consumers and companies. Consumers are no longer passive receivers of distributed messages. According to Malthouse et al. (2013) the rise of social media has changed the way companies should address customer relationship management (CRM). Furthermore, Wind (2008) argues that the high failure rate of CRM indicates that the game of CRM has changed. Companies must focus on offering a platform where consumers can co-create the solution (Wind 2008). The paper aims to undercover the challenges of CRM in the era of web 2.0.

 

From CRM to Social CRM

CRM in its traditional form is about companies managing relationships with customers to maximize customer lifetime value (CLV), but social media has changed the name of the game (Malthouse et al. 2013). According to Wind (2008) it is of great importance to measure the ‘’right’’ aspects for a successful CRM strategy. CLV and share of wallet provide insights about customer profitability and might provide the company with insights about how growth can be obtained by reallocating resources. CLV is not limited to purchase value, but includes the value of customer influence, referrals and knowledge (Kumar et al. 2010; Weinberg & Berger 2011 in Malthouse et al. 2013).

The ease of finding information about competitors and distributing opinions to a large audience has made it harder for companies to manage the output of messages. Customers have become active participants in the relationship with a company. In short, social media has enabled consumers to create and share consumer generated content (CGC). Companies are challenged in managing the messages received by the consumer about products and services (Malthouse et al. 2013). According to Malthouse et al. (2013) ‘’CRM must evolve if it is to survive in this marketplace, by producing contact points that engage the consumer and provide value to both the company and consumer’’ (p. 278). According to Wind (2008) companies need to move from CRM to CMR by creating platforms that offers customers to manage their relationship with companies. Furthermore, Malthouse et al. (2013) points out that ‘’a company should determine its CRM strategy according to the level of engagement that customers are likely to show and the CRM objectives that the company would like to achieve’’ (p.272). The adaption of CRM in social media is referred to as ‘’social CRM’’. From the social CRM perspective engagement can be either high or low which determines how a company should deal with acquisition, retention and termination (Malthouse et al. 2013).

In social CRM a low engaged consumer passively consumes content or engage in very basic forms of feedback e.g. ‘’likes’’ on Facebook. Companies can obtain acquisition of new consumers with low engagement by creating awareness and change attitudes by creating promotions on YouTube, Facebook, Wikipedia etc. (Malthouse et al. 2013). These basic activities are quite similar to planning traditional marketing activities, which reduces the risk for the company. Furthermore, it provides the company with the opportunity to improve targeting. To retain customer with low engagement in social CRM it is suggested that the company can influence attitudes through the use of Facebook brand pages and similar actions. In situations where the consumer chooses to terminate the relationship companies can use information form the social media to identify the customers that are likely to leave and thereby attempt to prevent it (Malthouse et al. 2013).

In social CRM high engagement would require that the consumer is active in co-creation of content related to a brand e.g. writing reviews. The main challenge for a company is the reduced control over the messages consumers and customers receive, whereby acquisition activities cannot be separated from retention activities in social CRM. Electronic word-of-mouth (E-WOM) and consumer generated content (CGC) is indeed a tool marketers need to consider in developing profitable relationships with consumer and customers. Negative word-of-mouth is at stake if the company choose to terminate a relationship with a high engaged customer (Malthouse et al. 2013).

The empowerment of consumers – E-WOM and CGC

Social media has enabled consumers to become marketers and advertisers. Web 2.0 has made it easier to share opinions, information and thoughts. These circumstances have influenced buying behaviour as E-WOM is now a dominating channel (Akar & Topsu 2013). The phenomenon of brand related messages created by consumer’s informal opinions spreading through the web is often referred to as E-WOM (Sandes & Urdan 2013). E-WOM is of great importance from the social CRM perspective. Companies have realized that E-WOM is stronger than traditional WOM, but it should be an interactive and engaging process to improve relationships (Papasolomou & Melanthiou 2013).

Henning-Thurau and colleagues (2004 in Sandes & Urdan 2013) suggest four main reasons for consumers to engage in E-WOM: ‘’(1) Seeking self-help, for economic reasons or own gain; (2) Concern about others  and searching for social promotion; (3) Altruism, seeking only to help others and companies; (4) multiple reasons relating to self-expression.’’ (p. 184). The motives for engaging in E-WOM can be useful to companies wishing to facilitate positive messages as a promotion initiative on the web e.g. through review sites.

Having considered the power of E-WOM and the motives for engaging in it in the era of social CRM, it is interesting to consider the effects of E-WOM. According to Sandes & Urdan (2013) positive messages about brands created by consumers improves the perception of image, but it does not increase purchase intensions. The importance of mastering social CRM is severely evident as a message can spread with high speed, which can become even more damaging if the content is negative (Barwise & Meehan 2010). According to Sanders & Urdan (2013) negative content has a stronger effect than positive content. The study shows that exposure to negative messages about brands created by consumers can damage the image and reduce purchase intentions.

E-WOM is often perceived to have higher credibility and trustworthiness than traditional media, but it is still influenced by traditional marketers and marketing activities e.g. CRM (Akar & Topsu 2013). ‘’According to Red Bridge Marketing (2008), regarding products and services, 78 percent of global consumers believe and trust suggestions of other people over any other data’’ (in Akar & Topsu 2013, p. 42). On the basis of this it could be argued that companies are dependent on the ability to collaborate with consumers in co-creating content to be successful in social CRM in the era of web 2.0.

Fournier and Avery (2011) refers to the web as ‘’the peoples web’’ indicating that marketers are less wanted in the social media sphere and thereby making social CRM a collaborative activity. Furthermore, consumer generated content (CGC) is more easily shared via the web (Akar & Topsu 2013).  One strategy that companies can apply, fitting well with the social CRM perspective, is to encourage the creation and sharing of CGC and thereby collaborate with consumers (Chrisodoulides 2009). According to Hanna, Rohm &Crittenden (2011) consumers are becoming increasingly interested in co-creating content for companies. On the other hand are very few companies taking a proactive approach in collaborative CGC in their long-term strategy (Muniz & Schau 2011). Companies are assumed to hold back due to the loss of control over the brand messages and brand meanings, but involvement from a skillful marketer increase the likelihood of a favourable outcome. Muniz and Schau (2011) suggest a 13 step checklist (p. 211, Figure 1):

‘’guideline collaborative consumer generated content ’’

‘’guideline collaborative consumer generated content ’’

These 13 guidelines could provide the companies with the courage needed to engage in collaborative CGC. According to Chrisodoulides (2009) CGC is expected to nurture stronger and deeper relationships between companies and consumers, which make it important for companies to master.   

Insights about consumers are out there

The social CRM landscape does offer positive aspects for the companies in managing relationships. One opportunity is to create advocates for their products by listening and engaging with their customers (Malthouse 2013). Companies can also benefit from using social media by acquiring insights about the consumer and possibly preventing termination of a desirable relationship (Barwise & Meehan 2010 and Malthouse et al. 2013).

Example – Telmore

Telmore is a Danish telecommunication company that promotes services and products mainly online. They were founded in 2000 and were the first telecommunication company to exist exclusively online (Politiken 2013). Telmore was early adopters of the interactive platform that web 2.0 has provided and is a great example of a company that successfully manage relationships online. Relationships are build online through a range of touch points e.g. Website-chat and review sites (Telmore 2014a and Trustpilot 2014). Six years in a row they have obtained records for satisfied customers in the telecommunication industry (Telmore 2014b). The company has made a great effort in engaging customers in creating content on review sites and interacting with customers surviving negative content in the transparent web 2.0.

Conclusion

In the era of web 2.0 customer relationship management (CRM) in its traditional form has changed due to the possibilities of interaction, reach and co-creation empowering the consumers. Initially companies need to consider more nuanced measures for CLV like the value of customer influence, referrals and knowledge. Producing contact points that engage the consumer and provide value to both company and consumer are necessary actions in the social CRM perspective. Furthermore, companies must consider different strategies for acquisition, retention and termination dependent on the level of consumer engagement.

The bad news for companies is that studies have shown that negative content has a stronger effect than positive content. Negative content is unavoidable, but to improve relationships and benefit from the use of E-WOM it should be an interactive and engaging process. Obtaining positive E-WOM has potential for companies as it is often perceived to have higher credibility and trustworthiness than traditional media. Furthermore, consumers are becoming increasingly interested in co-creating content for companies. Companies hold back due to the loss of control over brand messages and meanings, but it is suggested that involvement from a skilful marketer increases the likelihood of a favourable outcome. Companies can benefit from engaging in collaborative CGC and CGC is expected to nurture stronger relationships between companies and consumers.

Opposed to the empowered consumers, the web 2.0 has also provided companies with insights about consumers creating possibilities to identify advocates and prevent termination of a desirable relationship.

References

Akar, B, Topsu, (2013), “An examination of factors influencing consumers’ choice of social media marketing”, Journal of Internet Commerce, 10(1), 35-67.

Barwise, P. and Meehan, S. (2010), “The one thing you must get right when building a brand”, Harvard Business Review, December.

Chrisodoulides, G. (2009), “Branding in the post-internet era”, Marketing Theory, 9, 141.

Deighton, J. and Kornfeld, L. (2009), “Interactivity's Unanticipated Consequences for Marketers and Marketing”, Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23, p. 4-10.

Fournier, S., Avery, J. (2011), “Uninvited brand”, Business Horizons, 54, 193—207.

Hanna, R., Rohm, A. and Crittenden, V. (2011), “We’re all connected: the power of the social media ecosystem”, Business Horizons, 54, 265-273.

Muniz, A.M. and Schau, H.J. (2011), “How to inspire value-laden collaborative consumer-generated content”, Business Horizons, 54, 209-217.

Malthouse, E.C., Haenlein, M., Skiera, B., Wege, E. and Zhang, M. (2013), ‘’Managing Customer Relationsips in the Social Media era: Introducing the Social CRM House’’, Journal of Interactive Marketing, 27, p.270-280.

Papasolomou, I.  & Melanthiou, Y. (2013), “Social Media: Marketing Public Relations ‘New Best Friend”, Journal of Promotion Management, 18(3), 319-328.

Politiken (2013) TDC rydder op: Opløser selskabet Telmore og lukker Onfone [Internet]. Available from <http://politiken.dk/oekonomi/virksomheder/ECE2113942/tdc-rydder-op-oploeser-selskabet-telmore-og-lukker-onfone/> [Accessed 14 February 2014]

Sandes, F.S. & A. T. Urdan (2013), ” Electronic Word-of-Mouth Impacts on Consumer Behavior: Exploratory and Experimental Studies”, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 25(3), 181-197.

Telmore (2014a) Kontakt [Internet]. Available from <https://www.telmore.dk/kontakt> [Accessed 14 February 2014]

Telmore (2014b) Press release [Internet]. Available from <https://www.telmore.dk/1210849510069/PressRelease_C/om-telmore/pressrelease-2008-10-16> [Accessed 14 February 2014]

Trustpilot (2014) TELMORE reviews [Internet]. Available from <http://www.trustpilot.com/review/www.telmore.dk> [Accessed 14 February 2014]

Wind, Y.J. (2008), “A plan to invent the marketing we need today”, MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(4).

 

 

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